Max and Justin are engaged in pretend play. With great flexibility the boys use the bicycle inner tube as a symbol. They seamlessly transform the inner tube into a car seat belt, a possible flotation device for swimming, and a guitar that is strummed energetically. The children demonstrate spontaneous leadership and the role of imitation as they explore different scenarios. Once seated inside their pretend car, Max says, “I’m driving.” Justin responds by saying, “No, you’re not driving. I’m driving.” Notice that Justin looks at Max’s hands as he speaks. Rather than assume that Justin is seeking to maintain his leadership role, we might speculate that Justin is thinking about the quality of Max’s gesture. He may be telling Max that his action is not the correct action for driving.

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